Co-authored by: Reed Castle, Ph.D. and Vincent Lima
Certification examination programs often have more than one examination form (set of questions, or items) in use at a time, and they require routine updates. The exam forms represent the same content, but have different items. As new items come into use, they may be easier or harder than the first set of items. As a result, exam forms can have varying degrees of difficulty. These variations need to be taken into account when reporting scores and pass/fail decisions over time and exam forms.